A roots quiz

Diane Morgan’s new book digs in

By
October 19, 2012

Listen up, roots lovers: You’re about to be humbled.

Sure, many of us go out of our way for little baby turnips, and even my dog knows a carrot when she sees one. But can you recognize yuca? What about crosne? There are, it seems, whole bushels of root vegetables that many of us have never heard of — or if we’ve heard of them, we’re clueless about what they look like.

Based here in Portland, Oregon, Diane Morgan is a cookbook author who took it upon herself to teach us all what we’re missing. Over the course of two and a half years, she gathered up a couple of dozen roots, learned all she could about each of them, and created an impressive collection of root-centric recipes (some 225 all together).

While her new book, Roots, skips the alliums — onions, garlic, and the like — it does contain more than 400 pages of facts, photos, and recipes for 28 roots, many of which are grown in Oregon and none of which was difficult for her to source.

The flavor of various roots is, of course, the main reason to dig in and learn more about them. But the nutritional value of roots is also high, and they’re often affordable and plentiful. These are foods to take seriously.

Using Morgan’s book, we’ve created a roots quiz, below. Take it and test your roots mettle, then seek out some of these tubers and try them for yourself.

A: Burdock or salsify?

About burdock, Morgan writes, “The Japanese are responsible for its use as an edible plant and consider it a delicacy, enjoying its pleasant crunchy texture and earthy, meaty flavor.” She says that very young roots and tender leaves are eaten raw, but most often it’s cooked. Its flavor is best when the root is left unpeeled.

As for salsify? “It was first planted in Italy and France and only later in central and northern Europe. It was brought to North America in the late 18th century, and, according to his garden records, Thomas Jefferson planted it at Monticello.” Salsify and the closely related scorzonera (or black salsify) can be used interchangeably in the kitchen — that is, steamed, simmered, boiled, roasted, sautéed, or fried.

So which root is this: burdock or salsify?

(Answer at the bottom of the post.)

B: Jerusalem artichoke or galangal?

“Indigenous to North America, the Jerusalem artichoke, a member of the aster (or sunflower) family, was cultivated by Native Americans,” writes Morgan. Also known as sunchokes, these vegetables are neither from Jerusalem, nor members of the artichoke family. They can be eaten raw or cooked, but watch out: Some people suffer gastric distress from eating them.

A member of the ginger family, galangal is a root common in Thai, Malaysian, and Indonesian cooking — but it was also popular in medieval England. “In India, it is used as a breath purifier and as a deodorant, and a paste made from the rhizomes is used to treat skin infections,” writes Morgan. In cooking, it is usually used grated, chopped, sliced, or ground into paste to flavor dishes or marinades.

Which root is this?

(Answer at the bottom of the post.)

C: Horseradish or wasabi?

“Despite the name, horseradish is not a radish at all,” writes Morgan, “although it does belong to the same big family, Brassicaceae.” H.J. Heinz, she says, is responsible for bringing jars of prepared horseradish to the masses; in 1869, he began peddling the vegetable, which he grew in his own garden.

“Even though wasabi resembles horseradish in flavor and is often called Japanese horseradish,” Morgan writes, “the popular condiment plants are unrelated to each other except for both being members of the sprawling family Brassicaceae.” Like horseradish, wasabi is most often served grated.

Which root is this?

(Answer below.)

D: Rutabagas or taro?

Originally, Morgan says, rutabagas were grown for animal fodder and were consumed by humans only during times of famine; hence the vegetable’s reputation as peasant food. “One of the hardier root vegetables, [rutabagas possess] a starchy, low-moisture flesh that takes well to roasting, boiling, mashing, or braising,” she notes.

And taro, Morgan writes, is quite the tricky tuber: “There is a great deal of confusion and mislabeling when it comes to all kinds of tropical tubers, and taro is no exception.” Taro is a root that must always be cooked, as its oxalic-acid compounds can irritate the throat. But it makes amazing chips; “like yuca, taro chips fry with virtually no splatter.”

Finally, which root is this?

(Answer below.)

Kim Carlson is Culinate’s editorial director.

Answers: A=burdock; B=galangal; C=horseradish; and D=rutabagas.

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1. by Karen on Oct 23, 2012 at 11:25 AM PDT

I would have identified the purple topped root as a turnip not a rutabaga. Where I come from rutabagas were yellow fleshed and turnips were white. So what’s the difference between a turnip and a rutabaga, then?

2. by Kim on Oct 23, 2012 at 3:25 PM PDT

Hi Karen. Turns out turnips and rutabagas are in the same family. In fact, according to Diane Morgan, rutabagas are a cross between turnips and wild cabbages. Make sense?

3. by Josh Volk on Oct 24, 2012 at 3:16 PM PDT

Fun quiz but I can’t resist another comment from the peanut gallery - are you implying that alliums are root vegetables? Although the roots are edible, typically it’s the swollen stem or leaves that are eaten in pretty much every allium I can think of.

For Karen, I agree, but I think the color is just a bit off in the photo, not to mention there are multiple varieties of both rutabaga and turnip, each showing a unique variation on color schemes, not to mention variation from soil to soil and season to season. Glad to be solidly back in root vegetable season.

4. by Kim on Oct 24, 2012 at 4:42 PM PDT

Josh, your point is well taken: While the meaty parts develop underground, onions, for example, are stems, not roots. We’re happy to have farmers among our readership to set us straight!

5. by anonymous on Nov 27, 2012 at 5:41 PM PST

I realize I’m a bit late, but about turnips and rutabagas: There are white and yellow fleshed forms of both. The characteristic that can most easily differentiate them visually is the fact that rutabagas have a “neck” on top where the leaves are (were) attached. Turnips have a more abrupt transition from root to leaves.

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